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International Conference on Agroecology and Organic farming, will be organized around the theme “Accentuate Innovations and Emerging Novel Research in Plant Sciences”

Organic Farming 2021 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Organic Farming 2021

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Agroecology is a scientific discipline, a set of practices and a social movement. As a science, it studies how different components of the agroecosystem interact. As a set of practices, it seeks sustainable farming systems that optimize and stabilize yields. As a social movement, it pursues multifunctional roles for agriculture, promotes social justice, nurtures identity and culture, and strengthens the economic viability of rural areas. Family farmers are the people who hold the tools for practising Agroecology. As an agricultural practice, agroecology mimics natural processes to deliver self-sustaining farming that grows a greater diversity of crops, drastically reduces artificial inputs (pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics) and recycles nutrients (plant and animal waste as manure). These practices have obvious benefits for farmers – reduced input costs, greater autonomy from corporations, diversified income streams, risk management for crop failures and varied produce to improve nutrition.

 Organic farming is the method of crop and livestock production that involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones. In other words, it is referred to as, low input farming and uses natural sources of nutrients such as compost, crop residues and manure, and natural methods of crop and weed control, instead of using synthetic or inorganic agrochemicals.

OBJECTIVES OF ADOPTING ORGANIC FARMING

Organic farming may be adopted to achieve the following benefit

  1. To increase genetic diversity
  2. To promote more usage of natural pesticides
  3. Ensure the right soil cultivation at the right time
  4. Keep and build good soil structure and fertility
  5. Control pests, diseases and weeds

METHODS OF ORGANIC FARMING

1. Soil management

2. Weed management

3. Mulching

4. Mowing or Cutting

5. Crop diversity

6. Monoculture

7. Controlling other organisms

8. Raising Livestock Farming

9. Genetic modification

We should practice organic agriculture in a careful and responsible manner to benefit the present and future generations and the environment with food supply.

Integrated farming (commonly known as mixed farming) is a farming system with continuous activities including animal and crop. Integrated agriculture includes systems of farm with economic, environmental, social, and intergenerational sustainability. In an integrated and sustainable agriculture system the goal is not necessarily producing immediate outputs, but rather it maintains a system of healthful production, over time. The major components of a sustainable system include community, environment, and economy.  This mixed farming system recycles all wastes so that little is thrown away: someone’s waste is indeed another’s food.

Integrated farming (commonly known as mixed farming) is a farming system with continuous activities including animal and crop. Integrated agriculture includes systems of farm with economic, environmental, social, and intergenerational sustainability. In an integrated and sustainable agriculture system the goal is not necessarily producing immediate outputs, but rather it maintains a system of healthful production, over time. The major components of a sustainable system include community, environment, and economy.  This mixed farming system recycles all wastes so that little is thrown away: someone’s waste is indeed another’s food.

 

Plant pests and diseases can wipe out farmers’ hard work and cause significant losses to yields and incomes, posing a major threat to food security. Globalization, trade and climate change, as well as reduced resilience in production systems due to decades of agricultural intensification and biodiversity loss, have all played a part in the dramatic increase and spread of trans boundary plant pests and diseases. Pests and diseases can easily spread to several countries and reach epidemic proportions. Outbreaks and upsurges can cause huge losses to crops and pastures, threatening the livelihoods of farmers and the food and nutrition security of millions at a time.

Crop rotation means changing the type of crop grown on a particular piece of land from year to year. As used in this manual, the term includes both cyclical rotations, in which the same sequence of crops is repeated indefinitely on a field, and non-cyclical rotations, in which the sequence of crops varies irregularly to meet the evolving business and management goals of the farmer. Good crop rotation requires long-term strategic planning. Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons. It is done so that the soil of farms is not used for only one set of nutrients. It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and crop yield.

 

 

The goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet society’s food and Agri, food, Aqua needs in the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Practitioners of sustainable agriculture seek to integrate three main objectives into their work: a healthy environment, economic profitability, and social and economic equity. Every person involved in the food system-growers, food processors, distributors, retailers, consumers, and waste managers-can play a role in ensuring a sustainable agricultural system. Soil health plays an essential role in raising healthy, productive crops and livestock. The many benefits of cover crops are increasingly appreciated among farmers. They play an important role in erosion control, weed control, soil conservation and soil health. With careful selection and management, they fit into any crop rotation or cropping system, such as no-till farming, and are integral to organic farming.Increase profitable farm income Promote environmental stewardship Enhance quality of life for farm families and communities Increase production for human food and fiber needs.

        Organic farming is a specific type of agricultural production which is used to produce fiber and food which restricts farmers from using harmful synthetic pesticides. Organic Agriculture is an ecological production management that encourage and enhances Biological cycles, biodiversity and soil biological activity.  All produce meat, grains, dairy, eggs and fibres must be derived in a organic way. An organic farmer depends on increasing biological diversity in the field to disrupt habitat for pest organisms, and maintain soil fertility. By allowing farm animals access to the outdoors and feeding them 100% organic food, a healthier farm system is created for human, animals and the environment. Certified organic refers to agricultural products that have been grown and developed according to uniform standards, and must be verified by organizations that have been accredited by the USDA.

 

Conventional Farming

Organic Farming

Centralization

Decentralization

Dependence

Independence

Competition

Community

Domination of nature

Harmony with nature

Specialisation

Diversity

Exploitation

Restraint

 

 

Plant Genomics is the part of molecular biology working with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes in plants. Genomics is the study of genes, their expression and their activities, the role played in biology. Genomics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the sequencing and analysis of organism's genome. Genomics aids us in maintaining the large number of database that assists us to study genetic variation.

    Many new plant varieties being developed or grown by farmers have been produced using genetic engineering, which involves manipulating the plant's genes through techniques of modern molecular biology often referred to as recombinant DNA technology. These techniques are included in what is often referred to as "biotechnology" or "modern biotechnology. Assessing the environmental safety of a biotech plant requires an understanding of the biology of the plant itself and the practices used in its cultivation. This knowledge is important in identifying and evaluating potential environmental. The development of an effective national biosafety system is important to encourage the growth of domestic biotechnologies; to ensure safe access to new products and technologies developed elsewhere; and to build public confidence that products in the marketplace are safe. risks and also in designing any appropriate risk management measures.

 

Farmers Benefit from Agricultural Biotechnology Seeds. Decades of documented evidence demonstrates that agricultural biotechnology is a safe and beneficial technology that contributes to both environmental and economic sustainability. Farmers choose biotech crops because they increase yield and lower production costs.

 

Soil management is an integral part of land management and may focus on differences in soil types and soil characteristics to define specific interventions that are aimed to enhance the soil quality for the land use selected. Good soil structure improves water infiltration and decreases runoff and erosion. Well-structured soils are porous and allow water to enter easily, rather than running off to be lost to streams and rivers. Specific interventions also exist to enhance the carbon content in soils in order to mitigate climate change. Reversing the degradation of soil, water and biological resources and enhancing crop and livestock production through appropriate land use and management practices are essential components in achieving food and livelihood security.

Horticulture is the study of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology, and business of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants. It includes production, improvement, marketing and scientific analysis of medicinal plant, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as grass and ornamental trees and plants. It also deals with species conservation, landscape restoration, landscape and garden design, management, and maintenance, research and marketing. Horticulturists apply their knowledge, skills, and technologies to grow plants for human food and non-food uses like garden or landscape design, decorations etc. Their field also involves plant propagation and tissue culture to improve plant growth, diversification, quality, nutritional value, and resistance and adaptation strength to environmental stresses. Major horticulture sections are Arboriculture, Turf management, Floriculture, Landscape horticulture, Olericulture, Viticulture, Oenology, Postharvest physiology.

Organic Farming focusses on the Livestock/Animal Farming. Animal Farming is described as "studying the biology of animals that are under the control of humankind." It can also be described as the production and management of farm animals. Historically, the degree was called animal husbandry and the animals studied were livestock species, like cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, and horses. Today, courses available now look at a far broader area to include companion animals like dogs and cats, and many exotic species. Nowadays stress management is also a part of livestock farming as it finally improve product yield and quality. Pigs and poultry are reared intensively in indoor environments. However, indoor animal farming has often been criticized for multiple reasons - on grounds of pollution and for animal welfare reasons. 

Livestock farming plays a major role in the agricultural business and economy of major developing countries. They take an important part in crop agriculture. Most farms in the developing world are too small to avail tractor or other machinery facilities and their main alternative is animal power. The innumerable benefits of livestock farming can positively effect in a growth of agronomy, agro-economy, biological ecosystem and other agricultural fields.

 

 

A policy orientation for food security and safety include state-wise, previous, current and future policy issues, and cope-wise sustainability of agriculture. The particular part of food distribution in our society can be examined through the research of the changes in the food supply chain. Globalization, in particular, has significant effects on the food supply chain by validating scale effect in the food distribution industry. Provision of an adequate amount of essential nutrients to human beings has ever been the challenge in the province of food security. Hence, malnutrition is heavily interlinked to food security consideration, yet difficult to be eliminated. food security and policy, therefore, become magnetic in the province of research.

 

An agricultural waste management system (AWMS) is a planned system in which all necessary components are installed and managed to control and use by-products of agricultural production in a manner that sustains or enhances the quality of air, water, soil, plant, animal, and energy resources. The primary objective of most agricultural enterprises is the production of marketable goods. To be successful, the farm manager must balance the demand on limited resources among many complicated and interdependent systems, often including six basic functions : Production, Collection, Transfer, Storage, Treatment, Utilization.

Agricultural Engineering is the area of engineering concerned with the design, construction and improvement of farming equipment and machinery. Agricultural engineers integrate technology with farming. For example, they design new and improved farming equipment that may work more efficiently, or perform new tasks. They design and build agricultural infrastructure such as dams, water reservoirs, warehouses, and other structures. They may also help engineer solutions for pollution control at large farms. Some agricultural engineers are developing new forms of biofuels from non-food resources like algae and agricultural waste. Such fuels could economically and sustainably replace gasoline without jeopardizing the food supply.

Bio-fertilizer technology has shown promise for integrated nutrient management through biological Nitrogen fixation (BNF). Bio-fertilizers may also be used to improve Phosphate availability to crops. The efficacy of inoculants can vary with inoculant type, crop species, formulation, soil nutrient level, soil pH/type, existence of relevant microbes in the soil, and weather conditions. Bio-fertilizers are living organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil. It refers to the use of microbes instead of chemicals to enhance the nutrition of the soil, it is also less harmful and does not cause pollution.Main roles of bio-fertilizers:Make nutrients available.Make the root rhizosphere livelier.

Growth-promoting substances are produced.More root proliferation.Better germination.Improve the quality and quantity of produce.Improve the fertilizer use efficiency.Higher biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.Improve soil health.Residual effect.Make the system more sustainable“Biofertilizers are the product containing carrier based (solid or liquid) living microorganisms which are agriculturally useful in terms of nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization or nutrient mobilization, to increase the productivity of the soil and/or crop"Biofertiliser applications : Seed treatment | Seedling root dip treatment | Soil treatment

Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically engineered a breeding approach that uses recombinant DNA techniques to create plants with new characteristics. They are identified as a class of genetically modified organism (GMO). The aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. A transgenic plant contains a gene or genes that have been artificially inserted. This process provides advantages like improving shelf life, higher yield, improved quality, pest resistance, tolerant to heat, cold and drought resistance, against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Cisgenic plants are made up of using genes, found within the same species or a closely related one, where conventional plant breeding can occur. Some breeders and scientists argue that cisgenic modification is useful for plants that are difficult to crossbreed by conventional methods.

Agricultural business management is the use of business fundamentals to improve the agricultural industry and farm production. Agricultural business management, also called agribusiness management, applies business theories and practices to the agricultural industry to lower costs, boost profits and ensure that farm or food products are grown and distributed effectively. Agricultural business, also known as agribusiness, is the farming, management, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities, such as livestock and crops. The agricultural business field includes resource management, farming, conservation and crop improvement.

 

The goal of irrigation management is to use water in the most profitable way at sustainable production levels. For production agriculture this generally means supplementing precipitation with irrigation. Irrigation management with regulated water deficit allows a better use of rain water and stimulates deepening of the root system, increasing the volume of the soil which is explored by the roots of the plants. The applied water depth in each irrigation is lower than the water quantity necessary for the crop, but its value must be enough not to significantly affect the development and productivity of the crop. It is crucial to product quality in vegetable crops. Transition in the certain region from dryland to irrigated agriculture, or from flood and low-efficiency.

Sprinkler irrigation, to center pivot and drip irrigation systems. The content of some phytochemicals is related to fruit size and maturity stage, traits that are dramatically impacted by irrigation; however, the relationship between irrigation and phytochemical content is complex.

 

Organic foods and beverages offer ample advantages over conventional foods such as health benefits, free of harmful chemicals, and others. The global market is poised to witness significant growth during the forecast period, owing to increase in income levels, rise in awareness regarding advantages of organic products, and advancements in organic farming techniques. The demand for organic food and beverages is anticipated to increase day by day by. Organically grown fruits and vegetables have high nutritive value, and are free from pesticides and other chemicals. Furthermore, organic nondairy beverages are in high demand among consumers due to increase in health awareness among consumers.


Agricultural climatology is a branch of science that concerns itself with the influence of climate on the cultural conditions of agricultural plants, animal husbandry, the occurrence of detrimental influences (both biological and weather conditioned) especially on agricultural operating methods. Weather and its longer term variant, climate, remain among the most important uncontrollable variables in agricultural production systems.



The climatology group is involved in a wide variety of agrometeorological and agroclimatological research pattern, decision making for the length of the growing season, the relation of growth rate and crop yields to the various climatic factors and hence the optimal and limiting climates for any given crop, the value of irrigation, and the effect of climatic and weather conditions on the development and spread of crop diseases. This discipline is primarily concerned with the space occupied by crops, namely, the soil and the layer of air up to the tops of the plants, in which conditions are governed largely by the microclimate.